• 2023年2月26日


    As a copy editor, it is essential to have a good understanding of the rules of agreement in the English language. Grammatical errors can detract from the quality of any written work, and agreement is a crucial aspect of grammar. This article will discuss the rules of agreement in English and provide examples to help you identify them when editing.

    Subject-Verb Agreement

    One of the most important rules of agreement in English is subject-verb agreement. In this rule, the verb in a sentence must agree with the subject in terms of number and person. For example:

    – The boy runs to the park. (Singular subject – “boy”; singular verb – “runs”)

    – The boys run to the park. (Plural subject – “boys”; plural verb – “run”)

    Note that in the second sentence, the verb changes from “runs” to “run” to agree with the plural subject “boys.”

    Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement

    Another crucial rule of agreement in English is pronoun-antecedent agreement. In this rule, the pronoun used in a sentence must agree with its antecedent in terms of gender and number. For example:

    – She is going to the store. (Feminine antecedent – “she”)

    – He is going to the store. (Masculine antecedent – “he”)

    – They are going to the store. (Plural antecedent – “they”)

    Note that in each of these sentences, the pronoun agrees with the antecedent in terms of gender and number.

    Adjective-Noun Agreement

    Agreement between adjectives and nouns is another significant rule in English grammar. In this rule, adjectives modify nouns and must agree with the noun in terms of number, gender, and case. For example:

    – A pretty girl (Singular feminine noun – “girl”; singular feminine adjective – “pretty”)

    – Two pretty girls (Plural feminine noun – “girls”; plural feminine adjective – “pretty”)

    Note that in the second sentence, the adjective “pretty” changes from singular to plural to agree with the plural noun “girls.”


    The rules of agreement in English grammar are critical for any copy editor. Incorrect agreement can result in grammatical errors that detract from the quality of written work. As a copy editor, familiarize yourself with these rules and use them to identify agreement errors in any text you edit. By doing so, you can help ensure that the writing you work on is clear, concise, and free from grammatical errors.

  • 2023年2月13日


    Legal Agreement Types: Understanding the Different Types of Legal Agreements

    Legal agreements are important documents that play a crucial role in protecting the interests of individuals and organizations. These agreements outline the terms and conditions of the relationship between parties, formalize the terms of a transaction, and provide a framework for resolving disputes. There are various types of legal agreements used in different fields, and it`s essential to understand what they mean and how they work.

    In this article, we will explore some of the most common types of legal agreements and their unique features.

    1. Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs)

    A Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA) is a legal contract that establishes confidentiality between two parties, typically used in business relationships. NDAs are used to protect confidential information or trade secrets that are disclosed between the parties. Once signed, the parties are legally bound not to disclose any confidential information to the public or third-party.

    NDAs are commonly used in situations where companies are sharing proprietary information with employees, contractors, or other companies. NDAs can also be used in situations such as mergers and acquisitions, where the parties need to exchange confidential information to complete the transaction.

    2. Service Agreement

    A Service Agreement is a legal contract between two parties, where one party agrees to provide services to the other party in exchange for compensation. The agreement outlines the scope of the services to be provided, the payment terms, and any performance guarantees.

    Service agreements are commonly used by service providers such as consultants, freelancers, and contractors. They can also be used for ongoing service arrangements such as maintenance or subscription services.

    3. Partnership Agreement

    A Partnership Agreement is a legal contract between two or more parties who agree to work together to achieve a common goal. The agreement outlines the roles and responsibilities of each partner, the profit-sharing arrangement, and the decision-making process.

    Partnerships are often created for businesses that require multiple skills or resources to be successful. Partnerships can take various forms, including general partnerships, limited partnerships, and limited liability partnerships.

    4. Lease Agreement

    A Lease agreement is a legal contract between a landlord and a tenant that outlines the terms and conditions of renting a property. The agreement specifies the rental duration, rent payment, and the obligations of the landlord and tenant.

    Lease agreements can vary in length and complexity, depending on the property and the tenant`s requirements. They can also include additional clauses such as pet policies, subleasing restrictions, and maintenance responsibilities.

    5. Employment Agreement

    An employment agreement is a legal contract between an employer and an employee that outlines the terms and conditions of employment. The agreement specifies the job description, compensation, benefits, and any other terms that are essential to the employer or employee.

    Employment agreements are used to ensure that both parties have a clear understanding of the employment relationship`s terms and conditions. They can be used for full-time or part-time employees, as well as for temporary or contract workers.


    Legal agreements play a vital role in protecting the interests of parties in a business or personal relationship. Understanding the different types of legal agreements and their unique features is essential to ensure that the agreement meets the parties` specific requirements. A qualified attorney should always review and approve legal agreements before signing to ensure that all parties are fully protected.

  • 2023年2月5日


    The year 1948 marked a significant milestone in the world of international trade as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) came into force on 1st January that year. This agreement would go on to shape the global trade landscape for decades to come, laying the foundations for the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

    The primary goal of the GATT was to reduce trade barriers and promote free trade between member countries, with a focus on reducing tariffs on imported goods. The agreement was signed by 23 countries, including the United States, Canada, and several European nations. Over time, the membership expanded to include over 120 countries, including emerging economies such as China, India, and Brazil.

    Under the GATT, member countries committed to negotiating mutually beneficial trade agreements and reducing barriers to international trade. This included reducing tariffs, quotas, and other barriers to entry for imported goods. The GATT also established a dispute resolution mechanism that allowed member countries to resolve trade disputes in a peaceful and efficient manner.

    The GATT was successful in achieving many of its goals, leading to a significant increase in global trade and economic growth. However, it was not without its criticisms and challenges. Some argued that the GATT favored the interests of developed countries and led to the exploitation of developing countries through unequal trade agreements. Others pointed to the lack of environmental and labor standards in the agreement, which led to exploitation and abuse in some industries.

    Despite these criticisms, the GATT paved the way for the creation of the WTO in 1995, which continues to promote free trade and negotiate trade agreements between member countries. Today, the WTO has 164 members, including the majority of the world`s economies. While there are still many challenges to achieving true free trade, the GATT and its successor, the WTO, have played a significant role in shaping the global trade landscape and promoting economic growth and development.